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Studies of the Myths Literature and Mythology of Ancient Egypt (London: Allen Lane anxiety symptoms psychology order tofranil online now, 1970) is excellent for discussions of myths anxiety symptoms ruining my life tofranil 75mg for sale, but it is mainly an anthology of Egyptian literature in translation anxiety 6 months after quitting smoking buy tofranil 50 mg with mastercard. Brill of Leiden anxiety symptoms perimenopause cheap tofranil 25 mg otc, Netherlands, 1978) is a useful examination of the role of Set(h) in Egyptian mythology and religion. Griffiths pays attention to known versions of the myths and deals especially well with the political and historical origins of the conflict myth. The final section of the book includes a most interesting interpretation of the myth, particularly as related to possible historical background. Apollo as embodiments of enthusiasm and thoughtful relfection Legends of the Ancient Near East (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1963). A first-rate analytic source, particularly for myths current in Egypt between 2700 and 1700 B. Some interpretations of Meant: the Rediscovery of Pagan Symbolism and Allegorical Interpretation in the Renaissance (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1970), all of them interesting though now largely refuted. In effect, this is a "correcting" of Egyptian myth with some suggestions given to archaeologists for future excavationssuch as at Jebel Barkal. Steiner accounts for the way we hence my inclusion of these two unusual works here. All sectors should be heard from when myth is being investigated interpretatively, Works on Religion and Related Matters modifications in the religion over the years. Therefore, serious study of the myths must also include a good deal of work with the religion, and because of the alignment, much that you read in studies of the religion will incorporate myth analysis and interpretation. Frankfort takes into account the historical spectrum, noting changes and Egyptian myth and religion are as closely aligned as they can be; in fact the overwhelming majority of the Egyptian myths many hymns, legends, and the like included to make it a valuable companion to his Egyptian Religion. His book entitled From Fetish to God in Ancient Egypt (London: Oxford University Press, 1934) is concerned mainly with the predynastic period, but there are the individual chapters cover the same territory. Religious beliefs and practices are rehearsed in it, a special emphasis being Egyptian For highly condensed surveys of Egyptian religion, many general works can be referred to . Frankfort et al, covers generally Egyptian thought on the universe, life values, and the state. It is highly recommended as a brief and provocative introduction to these matters. Chapters eight and nine respectively deal with Osiris and Akhenaten; chapter seven deals with "The Judgment of the Dead" in Egypt, Meso- potamia, and Christian religion; and parts of other articles will be helpful in the study of Egyptian religion. Harris, has a number of articles in it that you might find useful, too, including A. It is a mammoth and scholarly work on just one facet of Egyptian religion, Osiris cult worship. In it Budge shows us how this indigenous African of Egyptian religion, "Mystery, Myth, and Magic. It remains the classic work on Egyptian eschatologyexcept for one other work, that, too, by Budge, the Egyptian Heaven and Hell (LaSalle, Ill. Paul Carus devoted a chapter to Egypt in his the History of the Devil and the Idea of Evil (New York: Bell Publishing Co. Closely related to religion in ancient Egypt and in fact part of it in practice was magic. Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life (London: Kegan Paul, 1908) is still another of E. It is by one of the foremost Eg-yptologists of our day and deals extensively with the reform. Probably as closely related to magic as magic was to religion in ancient Egypt was the development of science. The book Myth and Ritual (London: Oxford University Press, 1933) has an excellent chapter on ancient Egypt by the editor, S. That same subject is dealt with by Henri Frankfort in his Kingship and the Gods: A Study of Ancient Near Eastern Religion as the Egypt," one of the chapters in Myth, Ritual and Kingship (Oxford: Integration of Society and Nature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948/ib), in this case as concerns the incarnate god, pharaoh. Gaster in his Thespis: Ritual, Myth, and Drama in the Ancient Near East, revised edition (Garden City, N. Brill, 1967/b) is a fine study of religious festivals in ancient Egyptfestivals of the dead, of the gods, and of the king. Since a great deal of the impetus for the myth-ritual school came from the work of James George Frazer and since much of his work deals with relevant activity in ancient Egypt, you might wish to look into his Adonis, Attis, Osiris: Studies in the History of Oriental Religion (London: Macmillan and Co.

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Shade tolerant species (Engelmann spruce anxiety blood pressure purchase tofranil on line amex, grand fir anxiety symptoms stories depression men buy 25mg tofranil otc, subalpine fir) can endure relatively long periods of stress before experiencing mortality anxiety symptoms child buy tofranil. Fire exclusion allowed certain fire-sensitive shrubs (bitterbrush anxiety symptoms journal buy tofranil 75 mg, sagebrush) to invade dryforest undergrowth plant communities (Burkhardt and Tisdale 1976, Gedney et al. Loss of an open park-like structure had negative impacts on blue grouse (Pelren and Crawford 1999) and white-headed woodpecker (Buchanan et al. Tree mortality caused by density-responsive insects and diseases increased, particularly from bark beetles and defoliators (Anderson et al. Fire exclusion created landscapes that are more homogeneous, with fewer vegetation types and lower patch densities (Lehmkuhl et al. Landscape diversity declined after fire was prevented from periodically creating early-seral plant communities (Hessburg et al. The amount of juniper shown here is greater than what was encountered by Johnson and Clausnitzer (1992, appendix C) in their late-seral sample stands. Although much of this reported increase involves juniper expansion into rangelands, juniper also increased on dry-forest sites. Manifold increases in western juniper abundance have been reported in many studies examining eastern Oregon vegetation conditions (Azuma et al. In this context, adopting an active management (restoration) approach (see section 7, "Restoration of Dry-Forest Ecosystems") is a reasonable response to an historical paradigm of fire exclusion. Fire exclusion allowed fire-resistant species (ponderosa pine primarily) to be replaced with fire-sensitive species (Douglas-fir when small, grand fir, and western juniper when small). This change affected both ecosystem resistance and resilience because dry forests cannot resist fire when their composition is dominated by fire-sensitive species, and they cannot sustain their resilience if a high proportion of trees are killed by fire (see fig. Many studies from western North America indicate that herbivory by wild and domestic ungulates has been as influential as fire exclusion in shaping wildland ecosystems, especially for dry forests (Belsky and Blumenthal 1997, Fleischner 1994, Hatton 1920, Madany and West 1983, Oliver et al. Livestock, primarily cattle and sheep, were initially brought into eastern Oregon and eastern Washington during the 1840s via the Oregon Trail (Irwin et al. At the time of Euro-American settlement, much of the interior Pacific Northwest was covered with lush grass and other herbaceous vegetation (Galbraith and Anderson 1970, Humphrey 1943, Munger 1917). Forest inspector Harold Langille described rangeland conditions prior to extensive changes caused by heavy livestock grazing (Langille 1906): "A few years ago Eastern Oregon was one of the best range sections of the West. The rich bunch grass waved knee deep on hill and plain in such close growth that it was mowed with machines for hay. The winter of 18611862, however, was one of the most severe ever recorded for the Pacific Northwest and it almost wiped out this fledgling livestock industry (Galbraith and Anderson 1970, Humphrey 1943). During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, immense bands of sheep grazed in the Blue Mountains (figs. Sheepherders made an annual migration with their flocks, following the snow from low elevations in the spring to high elevations in the summer, and then back to low elevations during autumn (Darlington 1915, Oliver et al. Sheep grazing caused conflict between cattle ranchers, homesteaders, and sheepherders because sheepherders were often nomadic (in contrast to cattle ranchers and homesteaders who tended to be year-long residents), and because conventional wisdom held that sheep caused rangeland deterioration to a greater extent than cattle (Lomax 1928, Minto 1902, Oliver et al. Forest inspector Harold Langille described the sheep grazing situation well in this account: "Sheep from Wasco, Crook, Sherman, Gilliam, Umatilla and Morrow Counties are driven to the mountains early each season and ranged up to the very doors of the actual settlers and cattle owners. There has been some trouble in the past resulting in bloodshed, but nothing as serious as that which threatens to come about in the near future" (Langille 1906). Data derived from Bureau of Census agricultural summaries (Bureau of Census 1895, 1902, 1913, 1922, 1927, 1932, 1942, 1946, 1952, 1956, 1961). A complete collection of the herbaceous plants growing in a heavily grazed meadow found not a single perennial species, and no annuals exceeding two inches in height. Sheep browsing had damaged all shrubs other than snowbrush ceanothus (Ceanothus velutinus); even the small ponderosa pines were fed upon (Griffiths 1903, Langille 1903). When the Blue Mountains were surveyed early in the twentieth century, overgrazing was deemed to have been severe enough to influence whether forest cover was present or not, as described here by Forest Inspector Harold Langille during an examination of Heppner Forest Reserve (Langille 1903): "It was everywhere observed that upon tracts upon which there is no forest cover there is no soil.

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Access restrictions the gift agreement between Twitter and the Library of Congress dictates various restrictions on access to the Twitter archive anxiety loss of appetite buy tofranil 75 mg. Second anxiety meme buy 50 mg tofranil overnight delivery, once this time delay has been satisfied anxiety 30002 purchase 50mg tofranil mastercard, tweets can only be made available to library staff and to "bona fide researchers" as determined by the library anxiety cat order tofranil now, and who also must sign an agreement prohibiting "commercial use and redistribution" of the archive. While not explicitly stated, the purpose of the six-month delay is most likely in response to privacy concerns of Twitter users (discussed below). And while restricting access to the archive to "bona fide" researchers appears to be a reasonable attempt to prevent the commercial use of the data, preventing open public access to materials can be a controversial archival practice. Numerous libraries have faced challenges to upholding this principle of intellectual freedom,36 frequently fielding requests to remove sexually explicit or other controversial materials. The Library of Congress has not been immune from controversies regarding restricting content. Most recently, the library was criticized for blocking access to the Wikileaks website from its computer systems, including those used by patrons in the reading rooms. The gift agreement grants the library the ability to "dispose" of material in the archive it considers "inappropriate for retention,"39 but it remains silent on how such a determination would be made, how is authorized to make it, and whether any public notification would be provided that such exclusions might occur. Since content posted to Twitter often includes pornographic, controversial, copyright-protected, confidential, and perhaps even illegal content, the library might feel compelled to filter or remove certain tweets from the archive. Such a move would conflict with the broader principles of intellectual freedom, and this constitutes a significant policy challenge as the archive continues to grow. In the wake of the Library of Congress announcement, increased debates over the appropriateness of archiving public Tweets for research purposes have arisen (see, for example, Vieweg, 2010; Zimmer, 2010b; Zimmer, 2010c), focusing largely on concerns over respecting the privacy expectations of Twitter users. Research has shown that between 40 percent and 50 percent of tweets included information about the author,40 which might include contact data, other personally identifiable information, locational data, health information, and the like,41 posing potential privacy threats to users unaware of the fully public nature of their activity or its possible harvesting by researchers. Similarly, the practice of retweeting represents a risk for the leakage of tweets that had been intended for a restricted audience, thereby generating a considerable privacy threat when archived by researchers. Users who have been granted access to restricted accounts can easily retweet private tweets by copying and pasting into their own, unprotected feed, violating the privacy protections enacted by the original author. In a study of more than 80 million Twitter accounts, nearly 250,000 protected accounts had at least one restricted tweet retweeted by a public user. No Twitter user was asked to provide explicit consent to be included in the Library of Congress archive, and, as noted above, the library takes a position that since "people who sign up for Twitter agree to the terms of service,"46 additional consent is not required. As a result, short of making their entire Twitter account private, users are denied the ability to control whether they wish to have their public tweets archived and made available through the Library of Congress archive. Unaltered retweets of a tweet will also disappear from the platform when the original is deleted. Overall, the Library of Congress does not appear ready to provide users any form of control or access to their own tweets archived within the large-scale repository. There will be no ability to opt-out of the repository, and no means of deleting individual tweets if a user later wishes to remove certain utterances from the archive. Conclusion In the seven years since the Library of Congress announced its agreement to archive all public Twitter activity and make it available to researchers, the library has tackled numerous technical challenges related to pursuing such an ambitious project. The most recent official update from January 2013 outlined the progress the library is making addressing some of the practical challenges outlined above. Yet, despite this hopeful progress, the many policy challenges-of access, restrictions, privacy, and control-remain largely unresolved. The practical challenges of achieving the values of access and preservation remain high, while the policy-based challenges of ensuring privacy, confidentiality, and intellectual freedom appear, at times, to be even more difficult to attain. Sufficiently addressing these policy concerns will, undoubtedly, result in further technical and practical challenges. The library should, therefore, continue its path of pursuing publicprivate partnerships to overcome the technical and infrastructural limitations that currently prevent the library from providing researchers meaningful access to the data. These partnerships, however, must include not only technical experts in the field of digital archives and information retrieval, but also those versed in information policy, research ethics, and privacy. With such an approach, hopefully, we will not need to wait another seven years to make meaningful use of this important digital archive in support of the Core Values of Librarianship. Twitter and Society (New York: Peter Lang, 2013); Michael Zimmer and Nicholas John Proferes.

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Linda Nochlin anxiety and pregnancy 50 mg tofranil mastercard, "The Imaginary Orient anxiety disorders order tofranil 25 mg fast delivery," Art in America 71 (1983) anxiety symptoms all day buy tofranil 75 mg on line, reprinted in Nochlin anxiety therapist 25 mg tofranil mastercard, the Politics of Vision, Essays on Nineteenth-Century Art and Society (New York: Harper and Row, 1989), 33-59 at 50. Stronger than his fantasy of a living museum is his lament that there is no country left to "grow old in its own way;" modern "progress" means inexorable integration and cultural loss- and not only for Morocco. They speak to a sentimental regard for the past, as they also speak to a valid concern for the future and an awareness of the social and political integrity of the present. This perception was echoed in an article by "an eminent art critic resident in New York" who found Weeks, as an Orientalist, to stand "about half way between Fromentin and Verestchagen. The transformation was so complete, contemporary critic Albert Wolff observed that the "Orient does not resemble any of the African pictures which were painted before Fromentin. Albert Wolff, born in Germany and natualized French citizen, was a highly respected critic: "There is no other man with influence as great. Whether Weeks was familiar with the works of Fromentin is not known, but close correspondences may be observed in certain works of the two artists, for example Arrival of a Caravan Outside the City of Morocco (Figure 4-12) and Halte de muletiers, Algerie (1868; Figure 4-13). He always and everywhere confers upon the creature of the Orient the real grace, the distinction of the whole race;" "In Fromentin the draughtsman caught the most admirable movements; the colorist saw the matter with his choice sense of hue; and the poet, for his part, added some mysterious, delicious reverie to the compositions borne off from the suggestions of actuality. Africa inspired the painter and got it into his canvas; and that is just the essence of charm in the incantations of our charmer. Fromentin wrote of Algeria in terms similar to those used by Weeks: "Le silence est un des charmes les plus subtils de ce pays solitaire et vide. The skies are agitated and clouds scumbled; the brushwork is roughened and textural. Both paintings are bisected horizontally just below the midpoint; a local dignitary, marked by vivid red, views the tumult from nearly the exact spot on the left horizon line; a diagonal leads from this vantage point completely across the picture, terminating at the same point in the right foreground. However, these formal correspondences belie the true affinity, the shared point of view of North Africa as vital, limitless, ennobled by history as it is unconstrained by modernity. These paintings rely less on staged, authenticating details than on attentive observation grounded in personal experience, and a desire to translate that emotion, excitement and physical immediacy to the viewer. Memories and imagination conspire to romanticize that experience, but the result is more than reverie. It is a reimagining of the Orient, a recasting of its place in the minds of Western audiences. And yet, no matter how Edwin Weeks may have strived to share with Western viewers his captivating experiences in Morocco and the vitality of its culture, however carefully he may have avoided depicting its inhabitants as treacherous militants, indirect collaboration with French hegemonic designs proved unavoidable. Weeks had to be extraordinarily courageous to face the daily perils of existence in a region replete with threats (real and imagined) from rebellious tribes, religious fanatics and mismanaged economies-that is, a region desperately in need of the French civilizing mission. But, as "the most popular newspaper in army circles," there was clearly a broader political purpose afoot. Robert Tombs, the War Against Paris, 1871 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 110. Recognizing Weeks as an artist of "prominent reputation in America" the article described how, after months of harrowing experiences in Rabat during the height of the famine, the following year Weeks returned undaunted to push farther into the treacherous Moroccan interior. The passion that he developed in Morocco for architecture and scenes of everyday life-from dusty, balking camels to intricately carved, weatherbeaten door frames-only intensified as he traveled through India.